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Alkalinity is the measure of the capability of water to neutralize acid. This is really an expression of buffering capacity. A buffer is a solution to which an acid can be added without changing the concentration of available H+ ions (in other words, without changing the pH) appreciably. Water with a high concentration (ppm) of alkalinity has a high buffering capacity; water with a low concentration (ppm) of alkalinity has a low buffering capacity.